Sodium Chloride
Structural Formula Vector Image
Title: Sodium Chloride
CAS Registry Number: 7647-14-5
Additional Names: Salt; common salt
Molecular Formula: ClNa
Molecular Weight: 58.44
Percent Composition: Cl 60.67%, Na 39.34%
Line Formula: NaCl
Literature References: The article of commerce is also known as table salt, rock salt or sea salt. Occurs in nature as the mineral halite. Produced by mining (rock salt), by evaporation of brine from underground salt deposits and from sea water by solar evaporation: Faith, Keyes & Clark's Industrial Chemicals, F. A. Lowenheim, M. K. Moran, Eds. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 4th ed., 1975) pp 722-730. Toxicity studies: E. M. Boyd, M. N. Shanas, Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. 144, 86 (1963). Comprehensive monograph: D. W. Kaufmann, Sodium Chloride, ACS Monograph Series no. 145 (Reinhold, New York, 1960) 743 pp.
Properties: Cubic, white crystals, granules, or powder; colorless and transparent or translucent when in large crystals. d 2.17. The salt of commerce usually contains some calcium and magnesium chlorides which absorb moisture and make it cake. mp 804° and begins to volatilize at a little above this temp. One gram dissolves in 2.8 ml water at 25°, in 2.6 ml boiling water, in 10 ml glycerol; very slightly sol in alcohol. Its soly in water is decreased by HCl. Almost insol in concd HCl. Its aq soln is neutral. pH: 6.7-7.3. d of satd aq soln at 25° is 1.202. A 23% aq soln of sodium chloride freezes at -20.5°C (5°F). LD50 orally in rats: 3.75 ±0.43 g/kg (Boyd, Shanas).
Melting point: mp 804°
Density: d 2.17; d of satd aq soln at 25° is 1.202
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in rats: 3.75 ±0.43 g/kg (Boyd, Shanas)
NOTE: Blusalt, a brand of sodium chloride contg trace amounts of cobalt, iodine, iron, copper, manganese, zinc is used in farm animals.
Use: Natural salt is the source of chlorine and of sodium as well as of all, or practically all, their compds, e.g., hydrochloric acid, chlorates, sodium carbonate, hydroxide, etc.; for preserving foods; manuf soap, to salt out dyes; in freezing mixtures; for dyeing and printing fabrics, glazing pottery, curing hides; metallurgy of tin and other metals.
Therap-Cat: Electrolyte replenisher; emetic; topical anti-inflammatory.
Therap-Cat-Vet: Essential nutrient factor. May be given orally as emetic, stomachic, laxative or to stimulate thirst (prevention of calculi). Intravenously as isotonic solution to raise blood volume, to combat dehydration. Locally as wound irrigant, rectal douche.
Keywords: Emetic; Replenishers/Supplements; Electrolyte.

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