Structural Formula Vector Image
Title: Soap
Literature References: Any salt of a fatty acid, usually made by saponification of a vegetable oil with caustic soda. Hard soap consists largely of sodium oleate (low titer) or of sodium palmitate or stearate (high titer); soft soap, of potassium and sodium salts of coconut and/or palm oil fatty acids. Rosin acid salts have detergent properties and are often incorporated in laundry soaps. Shaving soaps contain glycerol and gum to prevent rapid drying. Medicated soaps contain antiseptics such as phenols or mercury salts. Soaps also may be prepd from the fatty acid and an amine, e.g., triethanolamine. Nonalkali-metal salts of the fatty acids are water insol and as such have certain uses.
Properties: Hard soap (olive-oil castile) is a white or yellowish white powder or bar, sol in water, alc. The aq soln is alkaline due to hydrolysis; the alc soln is only slightly alkaline. Transparent hard soap is obtained by adding additional glycerol during saponification. Floating soaps are made by adding air after saponification during the so-called "crutching" process. Soft soap (green soap) is a yellowish-white to brownish-yellow (or green) soft mass, more sol than hard soap.
Use: Hard soap¾detergent; in soln as a vehicle for liniments; as ingredient of pills contg resinous drugs like aloe, etc. Soft soap-detergent; extern. as vehicle for active medicaments applied in ointment form or liniment. Insoluble soaps¾fungicides (Cu), disinfectants (Pb, Cu, Hg), face powders and ointments (Zn), waxes and polishes (Al), greases (Al, Ca), and surface coatings (Ca).
Therap-Cat: Topical anti-infective. Antidote (mineral acid and heavy metal poisoning).
Therap-Cat-Vet: Topically as detergent (cleansing agent) and mild antiseptic. In liniments as counterirritant. Has been used internally as laxative, antacid and as an antidote for mineral acids and heavy metals.

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