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Title: Musks
Literature References: Fixatives for perfumes having a characteristic persistent musky aroma. Obtained from plant and animal sources and by chemical synthesis. Natural sources of musk include the musk glands of the male musk deer, Moschus moschiferus, the civet cat, Viverra civetta, the Louisiana muskrat, ambrette seeds, Abelmoschus moschatus, and angelica roots, Angelica archangelica. Musk odor is exhibited by several categories of chemical compounds. Natural musks are macrocyclic ketones or lactones having approximately fifteen carbons in their ring structures. Synthetic musks are of greater industrial importance and include nitro and non-nitro benzenes, indans, and tetralins; derivatives of hydrindacene, isochroman, naphthindan, and coumarin. Purification of natural and synthetic musks: Thomas, Stephens, US 3415813 (1968 to Pfizer). Review of macrocyclic musks: Berends, Am. Perfum. Cosmet. 80, 35 (1965). Review of chemical studies of synthetic musks: T. F. Wood, "Chemistry of the Aromatic Musks" (Givaudan Corp., company literature).
Use: In perfumery.

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