Hydrochloric Acid
Structural Formula Vector Image
Title: Hydrochloric Acid
CAS Registry Number: 7647-01-0
Additional Names: Muriatic acid
Molecular Formula: HCl
Molecular Weight: 36.46
Percent Composition: H 2.76%, Cl 97.24%
Literature References: A soln of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl) in water. Prepn and reviews: see Hydrogen Chloride.
Properties: Fumes in air. May be colored yellow by traces of iron, chlorine, and organic matter. Reagent grade concd hydrochloric acid contains close to 38.0% HCl. 83 ml of concd HCl poured into sufficient water to make 1 liter yields approx 1.0N HCl. The pH of 1.0N HCl is 0.10; of 0.1N = 1.10; of 0.01N = 2.02; of 0.001N = 3.02; of 0.0001N = 4.01. nD18 (1.0N soln) 1.34168. d415 1.05 (10.17% w/w soln); 1.10 (20%); 1.15 (29.57%); 1.20 (39.11%). Freezing pt: -17.14° (10.81% soln); -62.25° (20.69%); -46.2° (31.24%); -25.4° (39.17%), Gmelins, Chlorine (8th ed.) 6, 136-137 (1927). Constant boiling azeotrope with water bp760 108.58° contg 20.22% HCl, d415 1.096. Boiling weaker or stronger aq solns results in loss of either component until the constant boiling acid is obtained.
Boiling point: bp760 108.58° contg 20.22% HCl
Index of refraction: nD18 (1.0N soln) 1.34168
Density: d415 1.05 (10.17% w/w soln); 1.10 (20%); 1.15 (29.57%); 1.20 (39.11%); d415 1.096
CAUTION: Corrosive burns may result from the inhalation of acid fumes and from skin contact with or the ingestion of strong acid. Symptoms after ingestion or skin contact include immediate pain and ulceration of all membranes and tissues which come in contact with the acid. Ingestion may be associated with nausea, vomiting and intense thirst; corrosion of the stomach may lead within a few hours or a few days to gastric perforation and peritonitis. Late esophageal, gastric and pyloric strictures and stenoses should be anticipated. Contact of conc acid with the eye can cause extensive necrosis of the conjunctiva and corneal epithelium, resulting in perforation or opaque scarring. Chemical pneumonitis can be expected after respiratory exposure to acid vapors or after tracheobronchial aspiration of ingested acid. Death may occur due to complications such as circulatory shock, asphyxia due to glottic or laryngeal edema, perforation of the stomach with peritonitis, gastic hemorrhage, infection or anition due to stricture formation. See: Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, R. E. Gosselin et al., Eds. (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 5th ed., 1984) Section III, pp 8-11.
Use: In the production of chlorides; refining ore in the production of tin and tantalum; for the neutralization of basic systems; as laboratory reagent; hydrolyzing of starch and proteins in the prepn of various food products; pickling and cleaning of metal products; as catalyst and solvent in organic syntheses. Also used for oil- and gas-well treament and in removing scale from boilers and heat-exchange equipment. Pharmaceutic aid (acidifier).
Therap-Cat-Vet: Has been used as gastric acidifier.

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