Structural Formula Vector Image
Title: Acetaldehyde
CAS Registry Number: 75-07-0
Additional Names: Ethanal; "aldehyde"; acetic aldehyde; ethylaldehyde
Molecular Formula: C2H4O
Molecular Weight: 44.05
Percent Composition: C 54.53%, H 9.15%, O 36.32%
Line Formula: CH3CHO
Literature References: Produced by oxidation of alcohol with Na2Cr2O7 and H2SO4; usually from acetylene, dil H2SO4 and mercuric oxide as catalyst; also by passing alcohol vapor over a heated metallic catalyst. Lab procedure from ethanol: Wertheim, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 44, 2658 (1922); Fricke, Havestadt, Angew. Chem. 36, 546 (1923); Gattermann-Wieland, Praxis des Organischen Chemikers (de Gruyter, Berlin, 40th ed., 1961) p 180; from acetylene: Gattermann-Wieland, op. cit. 183; from paraldehyde: A. I. Vogel, Practical Organic Chemistry (Longmans, London, 3rd ed., 1959) p 324; by catalytic oxidation of ethylene in aq soln: J. Smidt et al., Angew. Chem. 71, 176 (1959); by oxidation of ethylene in fuel cells in the gas phase: K. Otsuka et al., Chem. Commun. 1988, 1272. Manuf: Faith, Keyes & Clark's Industrial Chemicals, F. A. Lowenheim, M. K. Moran, Eds. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 4th ed., 1975) pp 1-7. Toxicity data: Smyth, Arch. Ind. Hyg. Occup. Med. 4, 119 (1951). Review: H. J. Hagemeyer in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology vol. 1 (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 4th ed., 1991) pp 94-109.
Properties: Flammable liquid; characteristic, pungent odor. d416 0.788. mp -123.5°. bp 21°. nD20 1.3316. Flash pt, closed cup: -36°F (-38°C). Miscible with water, alcohol. Keep cold. Chill thoroughly before opening. LD50 orally in rats: 1930 mg/kg (Smyth).
Melting point: mp -123.5°
Boiling point: bp 21°
Flash point: Flash pt, closed cup: -36°F (-38°C)
Index of refraction: nD20 1.3316
Density: d416 0.788
Toxicity data: LD50 orally in rats: 1930 mg/kg (Smyth)
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are eye, nose and throat irritation; conjunctivitis; coughing; CNS depression; eye and skin burns; dermatitis; delayed pulmonary edema. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 2. See also Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, R. E. Gosselin et al., Eds. (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 5th ed., 1984) Section II, p 186. This substance is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen: Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition (PB2005-104914, 2004) p III-1.
Use: Manuf paraldehyde, acetic acid, butanol, perfumes, flavors, aniline dyes, plastics, synthetic rubber; silvering mirrors, hardening gelatin fibers. Flavoring agent in foods and beverages. Fumigant for storage of apples and strawberries.

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