Picric Acid
Structural Formula Vector Image
Title: Picric Acid
CAS Registry Number: 88-89-1
CAS Name: 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol
Additional Names: picronitric acid; carbazotic acid; nitroxanthic acid
Molecular Formula: C6H3N3O7
Molecular Weight: 229.10
Percent Composition: C 31.46%, H 1.32%, N 18.34%, O 48.89%
Literature References: Prepd by sulfonating phenol then treating with nitric acid: Olsen, Goldstein, Ind. Eng. Chem. 16, 66 (1924); by treating benzene with nitric acid and mercuric nitrate: Teeters, Mueller, US 2455322 (1948 to Allied Chem.); by nitration of 2-tert-butyl-4,6-dinitropenol: Ley, Müller, Ber. 89, 1402 (1956). Crystal structure: E. N. Duesler et al., Cryst. Struct. Commun. 7, 449 (1978).
Properties: Pale yellow, odorless, intensely bitter crystals. d 1.763. mp 122-123°. Explodes above 300°. One gram dissolves in 78 ml water, 15 ml boiling water, 12 ml alc, 10 ml benzene, 35 ml chloroform, 65 ml ether. Keep in a cool place and remote from fire. Explodes when rapidly heated or by percussion! Note: For safety in transportation, 10-20% water is usually added.
Melting point: mp 122-123°
Density: d 1.763
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are irritation of eyes, skin; sensitization dermatitis; yellow stained hair, skin; weakness, myalgia, anuria, polyuria; bitter taste, GI disturbances; hepatitis; hematuria, albuminuria, nephritis. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 258; Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, R. E. Gosselin et al., Eds. (Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 5th ed., 1984) Section II, p 197.
Use: Explosives, matches; in leather industry; electric batteries; etching copper; manuf colored glass; textile mordant; also as reagent.

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