Iron Pentacarbonyl
Structural Formula Vector Image
Title: Iron Pentacarbonyl
CAS Registry Number: 13463-40-6
Additional Names: Iron carbonyl; pentacarbonyliron
Molecular Formula: C5FeO5
Molecular Weight: 195.90
Percent Composition: C 30.66%, Fe 28.51%, O 40.84%
Line Formula: Fe(CO)5
Literature References: Prepn from CO and Fe ore: Wallis, Townshend, US 2378053 (1945 to International Nickel); from CO and Fe or FeSO4.7H2O: Reppe et al., Ann. 582, 116 (1953); from CO and Fe amalgams: Ettmayer, Jangg, Monatsh. Chem. 92, 834 (1961); from CO and steel turnings: Shipman, GB 897204 (1962 to ICI). Convenient lab prepn of small quantities of Fe(CO)5 from Fe(CO)4I2: Hieber, Lagally, Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 245, 295 (1940). Thermodynamic data: Cotton et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 81, 800 (1959); Leadbetter, Spice, Can. J. Chem. 37, 1923 (1959). Toxicity: Sunderman et al., Arch. Ind. Health 19, 11 (1959); Gage, Br. J. Ind. Med. 27, 1 (1970). Reviews: Cable, Sheline, Chem. Rev. 56, 1 (1956); Wender et al., The Chemistry and Catalytic Properties of Cobalt and Iron Carbonyls (U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, 1962) 83 pp; H. Alper, "Organic Syntheses with Iron Pentacarbonyl" in Organic Syntheses via Metal Carbonyls vol. 2, I. Wender, P. Pino, Eds. (John Wiley, New York, 1977) pp 545-593. Review of iron tetracarbonyl, the photochemically produced intermediate: M. Poliakoff, Chem. Soc. Rev. 7, 527-540 (1978).
Properties: Colorless to yellow, oily liquid. Pyrophoric in air; burns to Fe2O3. Dec by light to Fe2(CO)9 and CO. mp -20°. bp 103°. d420 1.46-1.52; nD22 1.453. Critical temp 285-288°; critical pressure 29.6 atm. Flash pt -15°C. Heat capacity at constant pressure (14°) 56.9 cal/mole/°C. Latent heat of fusion 3161 cal/mol; latent heat of vaporization 9.6 kcal/mole. Heat of combustion -386.9 kcal/mole; heat of formation [Fe(CO)5(liq)] -182.6 kcal/mole. Practically insol in water, liquid ammonia. Readily sol in most organic solvents including ether, benzene, petr ether, acetone, ethyl acetate, carbon tetrachloride, carbon disulfide; slightly sol in alcohol. Protect from light and air. LD50 in mice, rats (mg/l): 2.19, 0.91 inhalation for 30 min. (Sunderman).
Melting point: mp -20°
Boiling point: bp 103°
Flash point: Flash pt -15°C
Index of refraction: nD22 1.453
Density: d420 1.46-1.52
Toxicity data: LD50 in mice, rats (mg/l): 2.19, 0.91 inhalation for 30 min. (Sunderman)
CAUTION: Potential symptoms of overexposure are irritation of eyes, mucous membranes, respiratory system; headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting; fever, cyanosis, cough, dyspnea; liver, kidney, lung injury; degenerative CNS changes. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 97-140, 1997) p 174.
Use: To make finely divided iron, so-called carbonyl iron, which is used in the manuf of powdered iron cores for high frequency coils used in the radio and television industry; as antiknock agent in motor fuels; as catalyst and reagent in organic reactions.

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