Structural Formula Vector Image
Title: Glucagon
CAS Registry Number: 9007-92-5
Additional Names: Glukagon; hyperglycemic-glycogenolytic factor; HG-factor; HGF
Literature References: Polypeptide hormone produced in the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas; stimulates hepatic glucose output. Identification as hyperglycemic factor in pancreatic extracts: J. R. Murlin et al., J. Biol. Chem. 56, 253 (1923); C. P. Kimball, J. R. Murlin, ibid. 58, 337 (1923). Purification and properties: M. Bürger, W. Brandt, Z. Ges. Exp. Med. 96, 375 (1935); A. Staub et al., Science 117, 628 (1953); eidem, J. Biol. Chem. 214, 619 (1955). Amino acid sequence of porcine: W. W. Bromer et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 79, 2807 (1957); of bovine: idem et al., J. Biol. Chem. 246, 2822 (1971); of human: J. Thomsen et al., FEBS Lett. 21, 315 (1972). Review: O. K. Behrens, W. W. Bromer, Vitam. Horm. 16, 263-301 (1958). Books: P. J. Lefèbvre, R. H. Unger, Glucagon (Pergamon Press, New York, 1972) 535 pp; Glucagon Pts. I and II, P. Lefèbvre, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1983) 700 pp. Review of cardiovascular effects and use as antidote to beta-blocker overdose: C. M. White, J. Clin. Pharmacol. 39, 442-447 (1999); of role in glucose homeostasis: G. Jiang, B. B. Zhang, Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 284, E671-E678 (2003). Review of use to decrease gastrointestinal motility during endoscopy: T. Hashimoto et al., Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 16, 111 (2002).
Properties: Rhombic dodecahedra. Stable. Practically insol in water. Sol in acidic, basic media, i.e. below pH 3 and above pH 9.5.
Therap-Cat: Antihypoglycemic. Diagnostic aid (adjunct for endoscopy).
Keywords: Antihypoglycemic.

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